Major Diseases & Symptoms

I have broadly classified the major diseases in 2 categories viz: Infectious and non-infectious diseases..

Infectious diseases are caused by Bacteria, Virus, Fungus, Internal parasites like Amoeba (causing Dysentery) and External parasites like Lice, Flees, Bed Bugs & Scabies etc.

Non-Infectious diseases are caused by –Body parts wear out like Rheumatism, Heart Attack, Epileptic strokes, Migrain, Cancer & Cataract etc., –Entry of harmful things like Allergies, Asthma, Snake bite, Poison, Smoking, Cough, Ulcer in Stomach & Alcohalism etc., –Lack of something, needed by body like Malnutrition, Anemia, Goitre & Liver Cirrhosis etc., –Problem by Birth like Deformities, Epilepsy, Retarded Children, Birth marks, Cleft palate etc. & –Problems in Mind like Anxiety, Uncontrolled fear, Paranoia & Belief in Hexes etc.

Type of Spreading of Infectious / Non-Infectious Infections / Diseases:

Nosocomial: These are Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI) that is transferred from the environment or staff of a healthcare during when the patient is admitted in hospital like Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Pneumonia & Gastroenteritis etc.

Endemic: When the infection/disease spreads within home from one member to another flu, Amoebiasis & Cold etc.

Epidemic: When the infection/disease spreads in one or, more cities like Plague & Cholera etc.

Pandemic: When the infection/disease spreads all over world (Worldwide Outburst Infections) like HIV/AIDS.

Iatrogenic: When the infection/disease are caused by attending Doctor himself/herself during the course of treatment/operation like performing wrong procedures during surgery, prescribing overdoses or, wrong medicines.

Congenital: These diseases occur since Birth like Ventricular septal defect & Cleft palate etc.

Contagious: These infection/disease spreads by touching the body parts from infected person to normal person like Measles & Chicken Pox etc.

Non contagious: The diseases under this category can not spread from sick person to normal person like Cancer, Hypertension, Diabetes, Goitre & Ulcer etc.

Now, let us precisely discuss (in brief) about the major diseases, associated with different organs of our body, their causes and symptoms.

Brain related disorders:

Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) is one of the most painful disorder of brain. It is occurred in the 5th cranial (Trigeminal) nerve. The main symptom of TN is extreme, sporadic, sudden burning or shock-like facial pain in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed at Lips, Eyes, Nose, Scalp, Forehead, Upper jaw, and Lower jaw.  The pain may last from few seconds to 2 minutes. The trigeminal nerve is one of 12 pairs of nerves that are attached to the brain. Both sides of the face may be affected at different times in an individual, or even more rarely at the same time.

The pain is similar to an electric shock. The attacks can be so severe that you are unable to do anything during them, and the pain can sometimes bring you to your knees.

The attacks of TN can be occurred during certain action like Talking, Smiling, Chewing, Brushing the teeth, Washing face, Shaving, Kissing, Head movements & Car driving etc.

Stress or, Depression: It’s main symptom is Insomnia which is a sleep disorder wherein the patient is unable to sleep or cannot sleep for sufficient periods. The important is to find out its root cause.

Paralysis: When a muscle or a group of muscles loses their functional capacity, the condition is termed as Paralysis. Most often, paralysis occurs when there is damage to the brain, nervous system or the spinal cord. Poliomyelitis, Spinal problem, Stroke and Trauma etc are a few reasons.

Headache: It is the most common problem. A headache is mostly not a cause for serious concern. The headache may occur due to Migraines, Tension, Eye strain and Sinusitis etc.

Amnesia: It is associated with damage of medial temporal lobe of brain. The loss of memory is main symptom of this disorder. It may be for short time or for ever, depending upon the severity. Sometimes, the memory is revived also during reoccurrence of injury at the same time.

Dementia: It is a general term, used to indicate decline of mental ability and covers wide range of symptoms like Alzimer’s disease.

Parkinson’s disease: It is a degenerative disorder of central nervous system (mainly Motor system) which involves the malfunction and death of many vital nerve cells (neurons). The main cause of loosing the control on movement is due to lack of production of a chemical, called Dopamine. The symptoms of this disorder are Tremor in hand, arm, leg, jaw & face, bradykinesia, stiffness of limbs and trunk & impaired balance & coordination. There is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, but medications, surgery & multidisciplinary management can provide relief from the symptoms. If Dementia is developed in elderly patients due to Parkinson, may cause Alzheimer’s disease also.

Heart related disorders:

Heart attack & symptoms: It is a condition of heart when suddenly blood supply to coronary arteries is interrupted and the heart stops functioning normally.

Nausea or, vomiting, Anxiety, Crushing chest pain, Sweating, extreme fatigue, heartburn & difficult breathing are some of the main symptoms for indication of occurrence of heart attack.

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) & symptoms: It is a disease in which, a waxy substance, called Plaque (made of cholesterol, fatty substances, cellular waste products, calcium and fibrin which is a clotting material in the blood) builds up inside the coronary arteries. It may result with Angina Pectoris (Ischemia-less blood supply to coronary arteries), Arteriosclerosis (thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries), Arrhythmia (irregular heart beats), Myocardial Infraction (MI) where the cardiac muscles of a particular area are damaged due to nil blood supply for certain period of time.

Chest pain (which may spread in shoulders, arms, back, neck & jaw), Heartburn & Breathing problem are few symptoms of CHD and Hypertension, Hyperglycemia (Diabetes), Smoking, Over weight (obesity), Alcoholism are the main reasons for CHD.

Arrhythmia: It is irregular heart beat problem which occurs during heart attack or may be before also. There is a irregular heart rhytm which causes upper chambers of heart (Atria) to contract abnormally.

Fluttering feeling or, palpitations, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, excessive consumption of Caffeine, Alcohal, Drug abuse, Genetic, Stress etc are main symptoms of this disorder.

Lungs related disorders:

As the functions of Lungs and Heart are correlated, hence, the disorder in malfunctioning of any of these organs may cause many disorders like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD), Cardiac Arrest, and Emphysema (gradual damaging of Air sacs).

The Lungs can be affected by a number of diseases including Bronchitis (inflammation in Bronchioles, affecting Respiratory Tract), Pneumonia (infection in Alveoli, called Air sacs), Pleurisy (infection in Pleura which is a double layered membrane, surrounding the Lungs) and Lung Cancer. Untreated cough may cause Bronchitis which may further lead to Asthma, TB, Lung Cancer etc.

The above disorders may be occurred due to different germs may be Bacteria, Fungi & Alergens etc. The risk factors for these disorders are Smoking, excessive consumption of Liquor, weak immune system etc.

The common symptoms of Lungs related disorders are mainly Headache, Fever (may rise upto 105 degree in Pneumonia), Cough, sneezing, running nose, shortness of Breath, loss of appetite, early fatigue & excessive sweating etc.

Liver related disorders:

The liver performs many important functions in the body such as storage and filtering of blood, production of bile, metabolism of fats and sugars. Consequently any condition that affects the liver has a direct effect on the body. Common liver disorders are Jaundice, Hepatitis or Cirrhosis.

Liver Conditions:

Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, usually caused by viruses like hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis can have non-infectious causes also, including heavy drinking, drugs, allergic reactions, or obesity.

Cirrhosis: Long-term damage to the liver from any cause can lead to permanent scarring, called cirrhosis. The liver then becomes unable to function well.

Liver Cancer: It is known as Hepatocellular carcinoma. It always occurs after cirrhosis is prolonged.

Liver failure: It may occur due to excessive alcohol.

Gallstones: It is a stone which stucks in the bile duct.

Hemochromatosis: It allows iron to deposit in the liver, damaging it. The iron also deposits throughout the body, causing multiple other health problems.

Symptoms of Liver diseases: The main symptoms are Nausea, Vomiting, Dyspepsia, GERD, Hypochondrial pain, Jaundice, Fatigue, Clay coloured stool & high coloured Urine.

Diabetes Mellitus (DM Type I & II)

It is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high Blood Sugar.

Diabetes occurs either due to non production of sufficient Insulin by Pancreas or, the cells do not respond properly to the insulin that is produced. There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:

DM (Type I): It is found when Body fails to produce insulin. This is called Insulin Dependant Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or, juvenile diabetes.

DM (Type II): It is called Insulin resistant, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly. This form is called NIDDM or, adult-onset diabetes.

Diabetes Insipidus (DI): There are different types of DI, each with a different set of causes. The most common type is in neurological form, which involves a deficiency of Anti Diuretic Hormone (ADH). The second common type of DI is Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI), which is due to dysfunction of Kidney or, Nephron (insensitivity to ADH).

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM): It is the 3rd main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It occurs in about 2-10% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery.

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults (LADA): It is a condition in which type1 DM develops in adults. Adults with LADA are frequently initially misdiagnosed as having type2 DM, based on age rather than its etiology.

Congenital diabetes: It is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis related diabetes and several forms of monogenic diabetes.

Insulin: It is a hormone made by Pancreas which lies just behind the Stomach. The function of insulin is to help our bodies to use Glucose for energy. Everyone with Type 1 and some people with Type 2 diabetes needs to take insulin to control their blood glucose levels.

Symptoms of Diabetes: Frequent severely diluted urination, increased thirst, excessive hunger, low energy level and delayed healing of wounds are some of prominent symptoms of Diabetes. Acute complications due to diabetic ketoacidosis may also appear in advanced stage, leading ultimately Heart disease, Kidney failure, damage to eyes & even Pancreatitis (inflamation of Pancreas).

The Pancreatitis occurs when pancreatic enzymes specially trypsin, which digest the food, are activated in pancreas instead of intestine.

Symptoms of Pancretitis: The common symptoms of pancreatitis are severe upper abdominal pain or, burning pain radiating to the back, nausea and vomiting that is worsened with eating. The heart and respiratory rates are often elevated. Fever or, Jaundice may be present. Chronic pancreatitis can lead to diabetes or, pancreatic cancer. Unexplained weight loss may occur from a lack of pancreatic enzymes obstructing the digestion. It is about 80% of cases of pancreatitis which are caused by alcohol or, Gallstone. Gallstones are the single most common etiology of acute pancreatitis.

Kidney related disorders:

Kidney (2 nos) are bean shaped organs, responsible for excretion of waste fluids and to maintain the balance of electrolytes and to regulate pH homeostatis in our body. The Kidney is divided in 2 parts viz: Outer part is called Cortex and Internal part is called Medulla. The Nephrons are basic and functional unit of Kidney and they participate in filteration process through Glomeruli and the rate of filteration is known as Glomerular Filteration Rate (GFR).

The main disorders related with Kidney are Nephritis, Stones, Hypoalbuminemia (low Albumin in blood). The Albumin is a major protein in our body.

There is another major disease of Adrenal gland, attached at top of each Kidney, called Addison’s disease which is a endocrine gland related disorder in which the Adrenal glands do not produce sufficient Steroid hormones (Cortisol & Aldosterone).

The symptoms of Addson’s disease include abdominal pain, weakness, and weight loss. Darkening of skin in certain areas may also occur. The adrenal crises may occur with low bp, vomiting, lower back pain and loss of consciousness. An adrenal crisis can also be triggered by stress during any injury, surgery, or infection.

The symptoms of Kidney related disorder are Foamy or Bubbly Urine, mid night urination, frequent urination, dark coloured urin, caontaining blood (Mematuria), difficult / painful urination.


Musculoskeletal related disorders:

The major Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are Bone Injuries (fracture/dislocation), Joint pains due to Arthritis (damaging of Articular Cartilage and low level of Synovial fluid), Ligament tearing (sprain), Muscle repture, Tendon’s inflamation, Back pain (dorsopathy), Spondylitis (inflamtion in vertibral column) & Slip disc problems.

The most common symptoms of above disorders are Pain, Fatigue and Sleep disturbances.

Gastro Intestinal (GI) Tract related disorders:

Gastro Oesophageal Reflux Disorder (GERD): It is a disorder in which sometimes, acid from Stomach is returned back into Oesophagus (acid reflux). The symptoms of GERD are Heartburn, Bad breath, Tooth erosion, Nausea, Pain in chest or upper part of your abdomen, or have trouble swallowing.

Celiac disease: is an autoimmune disorder that damages the lining of the small intestine. It occurs when there is a serious sensitivity to gluten, a protein found in wheat, Rye, and Barley. Eating Gluten (a form of protein), may attack the immune system and damages the Villi of intestine. The main symptoms are Abdominal pain, Bloating, Diarrhea, Constipation, Vomiting and weight loss. The symptoms in adults can also include Anemia, Fatigue, Bone loss, Depression and Seizures.

Gall stones: These are hard deposits in Gall bladder, formed sometimes due to excessive Cholesterol, Waste of Bile or, if Gallbladder does not empty properly . These stones often stucked up in Bile duct also. The main symptom is sharp pain in right upper abdomen.

Crohn’s disease: It is an Auto immune disease, also known as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). It is also called Colitis, occured in large intestine. Its symptoms are Abdominal pain, Diarrhea, Rectal bleeding, Weight loss and Fever.

Ulcerative Colitis: It is another inflamatory Bowel’s disease, being similar to Crohn’s disease but, here, the effected part is only Colon. The symptoms are more or less same except that here, the ulcer develops in inner lining of colon.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): It is another common digestive disorder which may occur due to persistant constipation due to any reason. The stool of such patients is hard & dry on one day and loose & watery on next day. The symptom of IBS are Bloating, painful and irritating toileting etc. Eating friendly bacteria (probiotics), found in yogurt is useful to feel better.

Hemorrhoids: Persistant constipation may lead to Piles/Hemorrhoids in which bright red blood is visible with the stool due to inflamation of blood vessels at theend of GI Tract. They are painful & Itchy as well.

Diverticulitis: The out pouches ie: hollow or fluid filled structure is called Diverticula and inflamation, if occurred in this structure is known as Diverticulitis (found in colon). The main symptoms are Rectal bleeding, Fever, Abdominal pain etc. The Obesity is a major risk factor for Diverticulitis.

Anal Fissure: These are tiny, oval shaped tears in the lining of end of GI Tract (Anus). The symptoms are similar to that of Hemarrhoids. The strainign of hard bowel movements can cause fissures. High fibre containing diet is recommended for making the stool soft. Proper medication to relax sphincter muscles and topical anesthesia can give relief in pain.